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What is Roper Logan and Tierney Model of Reflection

What is Roper Logan and Tierney Model of Reflection

What is nursing? Roper Logan and Tierney Model of Reflection best explains the true essence of nursing. It is the model that is perfectly explainable in theoretical concepts and applicable in practical life as well. Is it about the protection, promotion, and optimisation of health or there is more to it? Well! There definitely is a lot more to the profession of nursing and the following post is going to be all about it through the perspective of the RLT model.

This model is equally valuable in your nursing curriculum, as well as your professional life. So; pay full attention to grasp its purpose, its main elements and other relatable factors otherwise you might have to take nursing essay help from the professionals to fully comprehend the model.

A Comprehensive Overview Of Roper Logan And Tierney Model Of Reflection

In the 1970s; a graduate student Nancy Roper decided to conduct research to fully understand the true crust of nursing. It was a research project for which you guys nowadays take nursing assignment help from professionals. Getting professional help is good but you need to also show your passion towards the subject so that you can contribute meaningfully to the field.

Nancy Roper published her research work which was picked and refined by nurse educator Winifred Logan along with nurse researcher Alison Tierney. In the year 1980, all three of them came together to publish The Elements Of Nursing. This paper was later on modified by more researchers giving rise to the famous Roper Logan Tierney Model Of Nursing: Based On Activities Of Living.

The Purpose Of Roper Logan And Tierney Model Of Reflection

You must have an idea for the basis of formulating this model but it is also important to discuss its true purpose in an elaborate manner for further clarification, including.

  1. This is the model that helps nurses develop personalised care plans that address all aspects of a person’s life.
  2. The model encourages consideration of physical, psychological, social, and environmental factors.
  3. The patient’s functional status is assessed and such areas are identified that need to be assessed.
  4. The model aims to improve overall patient outcomes and quality of life by addressing the full range of factors that affect health.
  5. Clear and consistent communication can be maintained among healthcare providers by implementing this model as a common framework.
  6. The model emphasises promoting patient independence which can lead to better long-term health outcomes.

The Main Concepts Of The RLT Model

The Logan and Tierney model of nursing is based on five main concepts that form the framework of this model. These concepts are;

12 Activities Of Daily Living

The 12 activities of daily living are the central point of living as per the Roper Logan and Tierney Model. According to this model; the 12 activities must be considered as a cognitive approach to assess the patient and create a care plan accordingly.

These 12 activities are for an individual’s health and well-being. So; what are the 12 activities of daily living? Well! Let’s find out:

  • Maintaining A Safe. Environment
  • Communication.
  • Breathing.
  • Eating And Drinking.
  • Elimination.
  • Washing And Dressing.
  • Controlling Temperature.
  • Mobilisation.
  • Working And Playing.
  • Expressing Sexuality.
  • Sleeping.
  • Death.


The model considers the impact of different stages of life on an individual’s ability to perform activities of daily living. It recognises that a person’s needs and abilities will change over time. The change will occur from infancy to old age.

Dependence/Independence Continuum

This continuum assesses the level of assistance a person needs to perform activities of daily living. The aim of this concept is to help individuals achieve maximum independence.

Factors Influencing Activities Of Living

The model signifies five factors that directly influence the 12 activities of daily living Roper Logan and Tierney. Roper had a belief that the resulting assessment would be incomplete and flawed without the consideration of these 5 factors. Therefore; if any nurse is implementing this model in use then it must be done after comprehending these factors; including:

Biological Factors

This factor addresses the impact on the overall health of an individual. It can be of current injury or an illness along with the identification of the patient's anatomy and physiology scope.

Psychological Factors

The psychological factor addresses the impact of emotion, cognition, spiritual beliefs, and the ability to understand. This is about knowing, thinking, hoping, feeling and believing as per Roper's theory.

Socio-cultural Factors

It is the impact of society and culture as experienced by the individual patient. This includes expectations and values based on the class, status, and culture of the individual. The sociocultural factor also relates to the beliefs, expectations, and values held by the individual patient for themselves, as well as, by others.

Environmental Factors

This factor affects and gets affected by the individual’s interaction with the environment. The model recommends consideration of not only the impact of the environment on the activities of daily living but also the impact of the individual's daily life activities on the environment.

Political-Economic Factors

The impact of government, politics and the economy on daily life activities is categorised under this factor. Some of the common issues in this regard can be.

  • Funding.
  • Government policies.
  • State of war or violent conflict.
  • Access to benefits.
  • Political reforms and government targets.
  • Interest rates and availability of funding.

Individualising Nursing

Each individual has their own habits and ways of doing things. Nurses can offer a unique patient care plan by recognising the uniqueness of each patient and their relation to different factors.

A personalised care plan can be created by nurses after combining these five main concepts of the Roper Logan and Tierney Model. It goes as:

  • Assessment: The nurse must start by assessing the patient’s ability to perform the 12 activities of daily living while considering their age and stage of life.
  • Understanding Influences: Then nurses must look at the five factors that might be affecting the patient’s ability to do these activities.
  • Identifying Needs: After that; nurses can determine how much help the patient needs and what specific support will be most beneficial.
  • Promoting Independence: The aim must be to help the patient become as independent as possible while respecting their individuality and personal preferences.
  • Creating a Care Plan: Lastly; nurses must use all this information to develop a care plan that is tailored specifically to the patient while ensuring comprehensive and holistic care.

Evaluation Of The Roper, Logan And Tierney Model

The evaluation of Roper Logan and Tierney Model of Reflection states the strengths and weaknesses of the model in a clear manner so that the nurses can make use of this model accordingly. The strengths of the RLT model are:

  • The model promotes the holistic view of patient care by addressing five main factors through its 12 activities of daily living. This ensures comprehensive patient assessment and care planning.
  • It offers a clear framework for nurses to assess and plan patient care. This makes it easier to identify patient needs accordingly.
  • The model can be applied to various patient populations and settings depending on the flexible nature of the model.
  • This model also focuses on promoting patient independence in performing activities of daily living, which is crucial for patient rehabilitation.


While identifying the strengths of the RLT model; it is also necessary to keep in mind the weaknesses of this model for its complete evaluation. These weaknesses include;

  • Comprehensive assessment using the 12 activities of daily living can be a time-consuming process.
  • The breaking down of the care plan into 12 activities of daily living can lead to an oversimplified view of patient needs that may end up overlooking the complexities of individual health conditions.
  • The RLT model is not diagnostic. It might help identify areas of need but does not provide specific treatment protocols.

How To Use Roper Logan And Tierney Model In Nursing?

The process of applying the Roper Logan and Tierney model to the real-life practice of nursing is quite simple; involving the main steps that form the framework of the model.

  • Begin by collecting comprehensive data about the patient’s health status, lifestyle, and social factors. This can be done through interviews, observations, and reviewing medical records.
  • Assess each of the twelve ADLs to determine the patient’s capabilities and limitations.
  • Identify the specific needs and problems for each activity of daily living.
  • Establish realistic and patient-centred goals to maintain each activity of daily living. Make sure to originate the goals that are specific, measurable, achievable, relevant, and time-bound.
  • Create a detailed care plan that outlines interventions for each activity of daily living.
  • Implement the planned interventions. Work collaboratively with other healthcare professionals to ensure a holistic approach to patient care.
  • Regularly review the patient’s progress towards the established goals. In order to adjust the plan, modify the care plan as needed based on the patient’s response to interventions and any changes in their condition.

While you are at it; always consider the patient as a whole and involve them in their care planning to enhance satisfaction. Moreover; maintain accurate documentation for the continuity of care.


The Roper Logan and Tierney model of reflection is one of the most used models for assessment purposes in the field of nursing. This model is equally applicable in conceptual frameworks as well as practical life scenarios. This model is composed of five main concepts varying from 12 activities of daily living to factors affecting the activities of living. Its holistic approach and personalised care plan enable the nurses to form a detailed plan for an individual.

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